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    新疆不同品种红枣农药残留风险评估与排序

    张微微 古丽斯坦·阿不都拉 贾秦岚 王贤 杨世英 范盈盈 何伟忠 刘峰娟 侯旭杰 王成

    张微微,古丽斯坦·阿不都拉,贾秦岚,等. 新疆不同品种红枣农药残留风险评估与排序[J]. 食品工业科技,2023,44(9):267?275. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070245
    引用本文: 张微微,古丽斯坦·阿不都拉,贾秦岚,等. 新疆不同品种红枣农药残留风险评估与排序[J]. 食品工业科技,2023,44(9):267?275. doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070245
    ZHANG Weiwei, GULISTAN Abdullah, JIA Qinlan, et al. Risk Assessment and Ranking of Pesticide Residues in Different Varieties of Xinjiang Red Jujube[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2023, 44(9): 267?275. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070245
    Citation: ZHANG Weiwei, GULISTAN Abdullah, JIA Qinlan, et al. Risk Assessment and Ranking of Pesticide Residues in Different Varieties of Xinjiang Red Jujube[J]. Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2023, 44(9): 267?275. (in Chinese with English abstract). doi:  10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070245

    新疆不同品种红枣农药残留风险评估与排序

    doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2022070245
    基金项目: 新疆维吾尔自治区重大科技专项计划项目(2021A02002-4,2022A02006-1)—果品质量全程安全管理技术及物流体系标准化提升与示范,新疆特色瓜果及农畜产品主要污染物残留消解变化规律与预警技术研究;自治区农业科技推广与服务项目(NTFW-2022-14);自治区红枣产业技术体系岗位子任务-红枣果实质量安全风险因子的排查识别与应用。
    详细信息
      作者简介:

      张微微(1997?),女,硕士研究生,研究方向:农产品质量安全,E-mail:3477844078@qq.com

      通讯作者:

      侯旭杰(1968?),男,硕士,教授,研究方向:农产品深加工技术;E-mail:501157873@qq.com

      王成(1971?),男,博士,研究员,研究方向:农产品质量安全,E-mail:wangchengxj321@sina.com

    • 中图分类号: TS201.6

    Risk Assessment and Ranking of Pesticide Residues in Different Varieties of Xinjiang Red Jujube

    • 摘要: 为了评估新疆不同品种红枣中农药残留的危害,探明不同品种红枣(冬枣、灰枣和骏枣)中农药残留的高风险危害因子及其风险等级。利用液相色谱-质谱法和气相色谱-质谱法测定红枣中的93种农药,比较不同品种红枣的农药残留差异,并进行风险评估,对红枣中的农药残留风险和样品风险进行排序。85份红枣共检出农药16种,不同品种的红枣农药残留检出率和检出种类不同,冬枣的农药残留检出率93.33%、检出农药种类15种,明显高于灰枣和骏枣农药残留检出率和农药种类。红枣检出农药的慢性膳食摄入风险和急性膳食摄入风险远小于100%,风险在可接受范围。冬枣中高风险农药是甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐和中风险农药哒螨灵、联苯菊酯、辛硫磷、啶虫脒、甲氰菊酯。灰枣和骏枣中风险农药为:辛硫磷、丙溴磷和啶虫脒。冬枣样品中存在高风险和中等风险的样品,灰枣和骏枣样品为中风险和低风险样品。新疆红枣的质量安全状况整体良好,但冬枣农药残留风险整体偏高,应引起重视。
    • 图  1  检出不同农药种数的冬枣样品所占比例

      Figure  1.  The proportion of winter jujube samples with different kinds of pesticides was detected

      图  2  冬枣中检出率在10%以上的11种农药

      Figure  2.  Winter jujube detection rate in more than 10% of the 11 pesticides

      图  3  检出不同农药种数的灰枣和骏枣样品所占比例

      Figure  3.  The proportion of Hui jujube and Jun jujube samples with different kinds of pesticides was detected

      图  4  冬枣风险因子排序

      Figure  4.  Ranking of risk factors of winter jujube

      图  5  灰枣和骏枣风险因子排序

      Figure  5.  Ranking of risk factors of Hui jujube and Jun jujube

      表  1  红枣样品中待测农药信息

      Table  1.   Pesticide information tested in red jujube samples

      检测方法农药名称数量(种)
      液相色谱-质谱法噻虫嗪,灭多威,除虫脲,虫螨腈,甲萘威,啶虫脒,辛硫磷,涕灭威,
      氯菊酯,甲氰菊酯,灭幼脲,3-羟基克百威,亚胺硫磷,醚菊酯,
      涕灭威砜,氰戊菊酯,氟甲腈,敌百虫,涕灭威亚砜,氟氰戊菊酯,
      氟胺氰菊酯,噻嗪酮,丁草胺,溴氰菊酯,乙酰甲胺磷,甲胺磷,
      吡虫啉,阿维菌素,氟虫腈砜,虫酰肼,氯虫苯甲酰胺,氟虫腈硫醚,甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐,吡唑醚菌酯,异菌脲,腈苯唑,氯苯嘧啶醇,烯酰吗啉,甲基硫菌磷,苯醚甲环唑,霜霉威,多菌灵,咪鲜胺,
      氯吡脲,克百威,毒死蜱,甲拌磷亚砜,丙溴磷,甲拌磷砜,
      甲基异柳磷
      50

      气相色谱-质谱法
      乐果,三氯杀螨醇,异丙甲草胺,氯氟氰菊酯,六六六-δ,水胺硫磷,
      哒螨灵,马拉硫磷,氧乐果,甲拌磷,伏杀硫磷,六六六-γ
      甲基对硫磷,3,5-二氯苯胺,氟氯氰菊酯,六六六-α,杀螟硫磷,六六六-β,氯氰菊酯,灭蝇胺,苯醚甲环唑,乙烯菌核利,丙环唑,
      五氯硝基苯,2,4,6-三氯苯酚,百菌清,醚菌酯,甲霜灵,戊唑醇,腈菌唑,二甲戊乐灵,多效唑,联苯菊酯,抗蚜威,对硫磷,氟虫腈,敌敌畏,异丙威,二嗪磷,三唑磷,三唑酮,三唑醇,腐霉利
      43
      合计93
      注:依据GB 23200.121-2021和GB 23200.113-2018的规定,93 种农药的定量限范围为0.002~0.01 mg/kg。
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  2  农药风险排序赋分标准

      Table  2.   Pesticide risk ranking and assigning criteria

      指标指标值得分指标值得分指标值得分指标值得分
      毒性得分低毒2中毒3高毒4剧毒5
      毒效得分(mg·kg?1>1×10?201×10?4~1×10?211×10?6~1×10?42<1×10?63
      膳食比例得分<2.502.5~20120~50250~1003
      农药使用频率得分<2.502.5~20120~50250~1003
      高暴露人群得分0不太可能1有可能2无相关数据3
      残留水平得分未检出1<限量值2≥限量值3≥10倍限值4
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  3  冬枣质量安全状况

      Table  3.   Quality and safety status of winter jujube

      名称样品(个)检出(个)检出(%)超标(个)超标(%)
      数量302893.3300
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  4  灰枣和骏枣质量安全状况

      Table  4.   Quality and safety status of Hui jujube and Jun jujube

      名称样品(个)检出(个)检出(%)超标(个)超标(%)
      数量551629.0900
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  5  新疆红枣农药残留安全性评估

      Table  5.   Safety assessment of pesticide residues in Xinjiang red jujube

      序号农药名称毒性残留平均值
      (mg/kg)
      最大残留值
      (mg/kg)
      ADI(mg/kg)%ADI(%)ARfD
      (mg/kg)
      %ARfD(%)
      1烯酰吗啉0.00290.07600.200.00170.600.0705
      2辛硫磷0.00030.00980.0040.0087??
      3咪鲜胺0.01090.46200.010.13090.102.5735
      4甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐0.00070.04160.00050.1640??
      5吡虫啉0.00530.12940.060.01060.400.1802
      6啶虫脒0.00030.01910.070.00050.100.1067
      7多菌灵0.00820.33610.030.03290.101.8721
      8醚菌酯0.00030.02920.400.0001??
      9噻虫嗪0.00410.06180.080.006110.0344
      10哒螨灵0.00060.02610.010.0073??
      11多效唑0.00250.13190.100.0030??
      12氟苯虫酰胺0.00350.21110.020.02100.200.5879
      13联苯菊酯0.00040.00940.010.00420.010.5211
      14虫螨腈0.00270.07040.030.01080.031.3074
      15甲氰菊酯0.00040.03500.030.00160.030.6491
      16丙溴磷0.00010.00290.030.000210.0016
      合计?????0.4037?7.9047
      注:“?”表示未检出。
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  6  新疆冬枣农药残留得分及风险排序

      Table  6.   Score and risk ranking of pesticide residues in Xinjiang winter jujube

      序号农药名称风险得分排序
      1甲氨基阿维菌素苯甲酸盐20.81
      2哒螨灵162
      3联苯菊酯15.43
      4辛硫磷15.24
      5啶虫脒15.15
      6甲氰菊酯15.15
      7多菌灵11.347
      8噻虫嗪11.347
      9多效唑11.347
      10氟苯虫酰胺10.4710
      11烯酰吗啉10.4011
      12咪鲜胺10.4011
      13虫螨腈10.4011
      14吡虫啉10.2714
      15醚菌酯10.0715
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  7  新疆灰枣和骏枣农药残留得分及风险排序

      Table  7.   Score and risk ranking of pesticide residues in Xinjiang Hui jujube and Jun jujube

      序号农药名称风险得分排序
      1辛硫磷15.221
      2丙溴磷15.112
      3啶虫脒15.053
      4多菌灵10.364
      5吡虫啉10.075
      6噻虫嗪10.046
      下载: 导出CSV

      表  8  灰枣和骏枣农药残留风险等级及指数划分

      Table  8.   Risk grades and index classification of pesticide residues in Hui jujube and Jun jujube

      风险等级风险指数划分占比
      风险指数(RI)极低风险RI<50%
      低风险15>RI≥594.55%
      中等风险20>RI≥155.45%
      高风险RI≥200%
      下载: 导出CSV
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    出版历程
    • 收稿日期:  2023-04-02
    • 网络出版日期:  2023-04-02

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