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- Papers Invited by Youth Editorial Committee—Food Nutrient Encapsulation and Delivery
- Papers Invited by Youth Editorial Committee—Encapsulation and Delivery of Food Nutrients
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Objective: Chitosan-coated nuciferine liposomes (CS-LP) were prepared and their hypolipidemic effects in vivo were investigated. Methods: The CS-LP were prepared by thin film dispersion and pH gradient methods, and their particle size and potential distribution, encapsulation rate, microscopic morphology and in vitro release curves were determined, and their hypolipidemic effects on obese mice were investigated. Results: The CS-LP was produced in a homogeneous spherical structure with a particle size of 253.54±4.25 nm, a zeta potential of 32.50±3.44 mV. The encapsulation rate of CS-LP was 83.46%. Compared with nuciferine liposomes (LP), the stability of CS-LP in the simulated digestive solution was improved after adding the chitosan. Compared with the high-fat group, mice gavaged with CS-LP for 11 weeks showed a 12.91% and 41.03% significant reduction in body weight and adipose tissue weight, respectively (P<0.05), a 32.40% and 14.49% significant reduction in serum triglyceride and LDL cholesterol mass concentrations, respectively (P<0.05), and a normalization of lipid levels and a reduction in adipocyte volume. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that CS-LP significantly increased the diversity of intestinal flora in mice (P<0.05). At the phylum level, the relative abundance of the thick-walled phylum and the relative abundance of the bacillus phylum increased significantly, and the ratio of the campylobacter and thick-walled phylum to the relative abundance of the mimic phylum also significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: The chitosan-coated nuciferine liposomes with high encapsulation rate and slow release could effectively improve obesity and intestinal flora disorders in mice caused by high-fat diet, and express the broad application prospects in the development of lipid-lowering formulations.
In order to make naringin have better water solubility and sustained release performance, hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was used to have strong adhectogenic ability for naringenin. Firstly the water-soluble inclusion complex of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and naringenin were prepared taking advantage of the hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin’s hydrophobic cavity, then a hydrogel outer layer was induced using pectin and sodium alginate complex polysaccharides by ionogel. The effects of complex polysaccharide concentration, mass ratio of pectin to sodium alginate, mass concentration of CaCl2 and naringin addition on the mechanical properties, particle size, encapsulation rate and drug-loading capacity of the gel balls were studied. The results showed that the concentration of complex polysaccharides was 3%, the mass ratio of pectin to sodium alginate was 3:1, the mass concentration of calcium chloride was 5%, the addition of naringin was 5.5 mg/mL, and the encapsulation rate of the prepared gel balls reached 68.34%±0.49%. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface of the composite polysaccharide gel sphere was shrunk and dense, and the internal structure was loose and porous. The infrared spectroscopy results showed that the clathrate formed by naringin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin was successfully embedded in the gel ball. Swelling and in vitro simulated digestion experiments showed that the complex polysaccharide gel ball had certain pH sensitivity and good control release. The complex polysaccharide gel ball carrier prepared in this study can increase the solubility and control release of naringenin, and provide a basis for the application of citrus flavonoids in food.
In order to explore the thermal protective effects of different proteins on betanin and clarify its protective mechanism, two animal proteins-lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin, and two plant proteins-rice protein and soybean protein isolate were used. The formation and interaction mechanism of protein-betanin complex were characterized from turbidity, UV spectrum, particle size, and molecular simulation. The results showed that all the four proteins could improve the thermal stability of betanin, the protective effect was: Lactoferrin>soy protein isolate>β-lactoglobulin≈rice protein. The improvement of the thermal stability of proteins to betanin was related to the formation of protein-betanin complex. The results of turbidity, UV spectrum and particle size experiments suggested that the affinity of betanin with lactoferrin, β-lactoglobulin and soy protein isolate was higher than that of rice protein, which might be caused by the low solubility and tight structure of rice protein. In addition, the results of interaction and molecular docking showed that lactoferrin and betanin were mainly bound through hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction, hydrogen bond played a dominant role in the interaction between β-lactoglobulin and betanin, the main interaction between rice protein and betanin was hydrophobic interaction, and soy protein isolate bound to betanin mainly by hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction. This study provides a theoretical basis for protein-natural pigment interaction and the research of protection of betanin.
To illustrate effects of sealed yellowing on the aroma quality of tea samples, sensory evaluation, headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and multivariate statistical analysis were used to study the aroma characteristics and volatile compounds of yellow teas (with sealed yellowing) and control samples (without sealed yellowing) manufactured from three tea varieties. The result showed that yellow teas had sweet flavor compared with control samples. Meanwhile, the total content of volatile components in the yellow tea was 1.09~1.44 times that of the control sample, and the proportion of alcohols and hydrocarbons accounted for 65.88%~76.93%. The result of principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis of volatile compounds indicated that the composition of compounds reflected the difference of aroma characteristics, and then 35 characteristic aroma compounds were screened (P<0.01). Furthermore, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis identified 14 key aroma compounds affected by sealed yellowing (VIP≥1). Among them, the contents of α-terpineol, linalool, γ-terpinene, limonene, terpinene, methyl phenylacetate, 2,2,6-trimethylcycloheptane, 4-oxoisophorone and o-cymene, with floral, fruity and sweet aroma, were significantly higher in yellow teas than in control samples. These compounds were considered to be responsible for the sweet aroma characteristic of yellow tea.
Impacts of wheat flour substituted with varying levels of vine tea (Ampelopsis grossedentata) powder (from 0% to 5%) on the sensory quality, texture properties, internal structure and antioxidant properties of bread were investigated. Compared with white bread, the chewiness and springness of bread with 1% berry tea did not change significantly (P>0.05), and its quality was great. However, the quality of berry tea bread decreased significantly as the proportion of vine tea powder increased. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) results indicated that the internal structure of bread was intact and the edge of pores was smooth when the addition amount was 1%, but with the increase of the addition amount, the internal structure of vine tea bread was destroyed and the quality of bread decreased. The antioxidant results showed that the contents of polyphenols, flavonoids, dihydromyricetin (DHM), myricitrin, myricetin and antioxidant properties of bread increased significantly (P<0.05) with the increase in the proportion of vine tea powder. Overall, 1% of vine tea powder can ensure the quality and improve the antioxidant properties of bread, which provides a theoretical basis for the subsequent processing application of vine tea powder in bread.
To obtain the optimal marinated method under vacuum low-temperature conditions, the effects of wet (WM) and dry marinated (DM) methods on the sensory qualities and physicochemical properties of marinated duck legs were explored via texture determination, electronic nose and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. The results showed that compared with the DM group, the L* and b* values on the outside and inside of duck legs in the WM group significantly decreased (P<0.05), while the a* values, color and taste in WM group significantly increased (P<0.05), and the sensory score in the WM group increased 11.56%. The electronic nose results also indicated that the smell of the duck legs in the WM group met the needs of the public. Compared with the DM group, the moisture content in the WM group increased by 9.71%. The cooking processing loss in the WM group decreased by 21.55% compared with the DM group. The texture characteristics of the duck legs in the WM group including hardness and elasticity were slightly lower than that in the DM group. In conclusion, the WM method under vacuum low-temperature conditions could improve the color of the duck legs, retain the moisture of the duck legs, reduce the cooking process loss of duck legs, and better meet the needs of consumers. The research provides more data support and technical reference for the vacuum low-temperature marinated process.
In this study, ultrasonication was applied in the whole process of dough freezing and in the maximum ice crystal formation zone, respectively, to explore the effects of ultrasonic-assisted freezing on the physicochemical and structural properties of wheat starch in dough. The results showed that compared with the frozen samples without ultrasonication, the peak viscosity of wheat starch in the dough decreased by 8.6% and 14.5%, the trough viscosity reduced by 17.1% and 13.7%, and the final viscosity increased by 11.3% and ?3.6%, respectively, when ultrasonic-assisted freezing was applied in the maximum ice crystal formation zone and the whole process. The consistency coefficient and shear resistance of wheat starch system in dough were maintained to a certain extent by applying ultrasonic in the maximum ice crystal formation zone and the whole process. The consistency coefficient of starch decreased by 19.0% and 23.3%, and the shear structure resilience increased by 4.0% and 7.2%, respectively. Compared with the frozen samples without ultrasonication, the relative crystallinity of wheat starch in the sonicated dough was reduced, and the short-range ordered structure of starch molecules was reduced to a certain extent. In summary, the application of ultrasonic field refines the ice crystals and slows down the damage to the internal structure of wheat starch in the dough during the freezing process. A comparison between the two ultrasound processes, it can be speculated that the effect of ultrasonic application in the whole process of dough-freezing is significantly better than that in the maximum ice crystal formation zone.
The effects of adding different proportions of salt on the quality of dough and hand-grabbed cakes were investigated, and the comprehensive analysis was carried out with respect to the dough color, moisture distribution, tensile properties, dynamic rheological properties, and free sulfhydryl groups and disulfide bonds. The results showed that the brightness value of the dough sheet reached the highest value of 86.50 at 3% salt addition, and the color of the dough was the best. The proportion of bound water and free water decreased with the increase of salt addition, and the proportion of semi-bound water increased. With the increase of salt addition, the maximum tensile force of tough increased, tensile distance and tensile area of dough increased first and then decreased. The characteristic elastic modulus and viscosity modulus of the dough increased with the increase of salt addition. The free sulfhydryl content decreased first and then increased, and the disulfide bond content increased first and then decreased, when the salt content was 3%, the free sulfhydryl content was the lowest, and the disulfide bond content was the highest. The textural properties of the hand-grabbed cakes were optimized at 2% salt addition, and the sensory score of the hand-grabbed cakes reached the highest 87.31. In conclusion, the addition of edible salt can improve the processing characteristics of dough and the quality of hand-grabbed cakes.
To explore the changes in physicochemical characteristics of muscle protein of grass carp during cold storage, the muscle protein samples were prepared from the grass carp fillets which were refrigerated at 4 ℃ for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 d, respectively. And their molecular weight (MW) distribution, water holding capacity（WHC）, solution viscosity, thermodynamic property, as well as salt solubility of actomyosin were determined by size exclusion HPLC, rheometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), etc. The results showed that the average MW of muscle protein was decreased during the whole cold storage period, while the WHC decreased severely in the early stage of cold storage and was dropped by 56.12% at the 8th day. The apparent viscosity of muscle protein decreased quickly at low shear rates, and fell from 0.89 Pa·s of 0 d to 0.05 Pa·s of 10 d at a shear rate of 20 s?1. The salt solubility of actomyosin declined obviously and dropped by 40.96% after 6 d of cold storage. Moreover, two endothermic peaks were observed in DSC curves of the protein samples from refrigerated fish muscles, and the onset temperature (Te) and peak temperature (Tm) of the biggest peak were both maximized at the 6th day, while its corresponding enthalpy change (?H) was minimized. The results indicated that the 6th day of cold storage was a key time point for complex changes of grass carp muscle proteins. This study provides basic data for better understanding the deterioration mechanism of grass carp muscle during cold storage.
In order to evaluate the fatty acid composition characteristics of brown spotted grouper, a comprehensive analysis of the lipid yields, fatty acid compositions of total lipid and different lipid classes, and the stereospecific distributions of fatty acids in triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) in muscle, head, skin and viscera was performed using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography (GC) techniques. Rich saccharolipids (SL) and PL were found in the head and viscera. In the total fat of each tissue, the content of essential fatty acids ranged from 24.17% to 24.51% of the total fatty acids, and the content of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ranged from 12.42% to 13.73% of the total fatty acids, with the index of atherogenicity, index of thrombogenicity and n-6/n-3 ratio were at low levels. Moreover, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially DHA+EPA (28.43%~37.37%), accounted for a much higher percentage of PL than in other lipid classes. Saturated fatty acids were mainly distributed in the sn-2 positions of TAG and PL, and monounsaturated fatty acids were mainly distributed in sn-1,3 positions of TAG and sn-2 position of PL. Furthermore, PUFA tended to be distributed in sn-1,3 positions of TAG and sn-1 position of PL. Interesting, DHA was mainly bonded to the sn-2 site of TAG and sn-1 site of PL, which was beneficial for their bioavailability. Hence, the lipid profiles of brown spotted grouper are abundant, and the positional distribution characteristics of DHA in TAG and PL makes it easier to be utilized by human body, which can be a potential source of DHA-TAG and DHA-PL with high comprehensive utilization value.
In order to explore the effect of Chlorella polysaccharide sulfation modification on biological activity, Chlorella sp.22 was used as experimental material in this study. The purified polysaccharide HDB-1 was obtained by extracting intracellular polysaccharides and separated and purified by DEAE-52 cellulose anion exchange column. The purified polysaccharide HDB-1 was sulfated to obtain SHDB-1. The antioxidant activity and antitumor activity of polysaccharides before and after sulfation modification were studied. The results showed that the purified component HDB-1 was mainly α-furanose. SHDB-1 was obtained by sulfation modification of HDB-1 by sulfur trioxide-pyridine method. Its degree of substitution was 1.046. The antioxidant activity results showed that the IC50 (semi-inhibitory concentration) values of HDB-1 and SHDB-1 DPPH radical clearance were 29.28 mg/mL and 14.49 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 values of hydroxyl radical scavenging were 36.75 mg/mL and 28.59 mg/mL, respectively, indicating that the antioxidant effect of SHDB-1 was better than that of HDB-1. The antitumor results showed that HDB-1 and SHDB-1 were not toxic to cells at 1 mg/mL concentrations. The IC50 values of HDB-1 and SHDB-1 were 960.16 μg/mL and 658.19 μg/mL, respectively, indicating that SHDB-1 inhibited the proliferation of Hela in cervical cancer cells better than HDB-1. The above results show that compared with HDB-1, the antioxidant activity and in vitro inhibition of cancer cell proliferation of the sulfation-modified Chlorella intracellular polysaccharides SHDB-1 are significantly improved.
The structure and properties of potato starch were investigated after superfine grinding with a fluidized bed jet mill. The particle size, granular morphology, functional groups, rheological property, thermal and physicochemical properties of the potato starch were characterized using laser particle size analyzer (LPA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS), simultaneous thermal analyzer and rheometer. It was found that the particle size of potato starch was significantly decreased to 13.59±0.04 μm after superfine grinding. There was no new element peak in the spectrum of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), no new elements were introduced on the surface of starch granules. The amylose content increased, the molecular chain of amylopectin shortened, and the solubility, swelling degree and transparency of starch paste increased. The viscosity resistance decreases, and the apparent viscosity decreased. The hydrogen bonds and molecular chains of starch molecules were broken, and the retrogradation decreased. This study provides a theoretical basis and technical support for improving deep exploitation and utilization of potato starch.
In order to explore the effect on the quality of Wuyi rock tea with different leaf spreading thickness during airing, the leaf temperature, leaf ambient CO2 concentration, volatile metabolites, polyphenols, and amino acids composition of primary tea during airing stage under 6, 12, 18 cm leaf spreading thickness, and traditional airing were detected, the shoots of the third and fourth leaves of Rougui (the Camellia sinensis var. Rougui) was selected as raw materials, headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-TOF-MS) and targeted metabolomics were used as method. The results showed that the leaf temperature of 6 and 12 cm thickness was relatively stable, and the CO2 concentration of each leaf spreading thickness was significantly lower than that of traditional airing after the second airing (P<0.05). The sensory quality of raw tea showed a downward trend with the increase of thickness, and the comprehensive quality score was highest (94.1) under 6 cm leaf spreading thickness. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in the total catechins among different leaf spreading thickness was observed. However, the total catechins in treatments were significantly higher than the control (normal leaf spreading thickness, P<0.05), and the content of catechin in raw tea under the 6 cm leaf spreading thickness was higher. In addition, there was no significant difference in the total amino acids and fresh tast amino acid among 6, 12 and 18 cm leaf spreading thickness, but 12 and 18 cm were significantly higher than traditional airing (P<0.05). Alcohols accounted for the largest proportion of volatile substances in each raw tea. Meanwhile, some important ester volatiles, such as cis-3-hexenyl hexanoate, 4-hexanolide and hexyl hexanoate were significantly higher in 6 and 12 cm leaf spreading thickness than that in 18 cm and traditional leaf spreading thickness treatment (P<0.05). In conclusion, airing with 6 and 12 cm leaf spreading thickness enhance the soup thickness and the formation of pleasant aroma substances of Wuyi rock tea, 12 cm can be used as a reference leaf spreading thickness to Wuyi rock tea airing considering both quality and yield.
To investigate the effects of freezing-thawing times on the collagen properties and the yak meat quality. The changes of shear force, pH, thawing loss, cooking loss, color difference, texture, collagen content and solubility, enzyme activity and microstructure of yak meat were analyzed on different freezing-thawing times. The results showed that with the increase of freezing-thawing times, the shear force of yak meat decreased by 59.72%, moreover, the collagen solubility, β-galactosidase and β-galacturonase activity, thawing loss, cooking loss and b* value of yak meat increased significantly (P<0.05). Furthermore, the collagen content, shear force, pH, L* value, a* value and texture decreased significantly (P<0.05). The correlation results showed that shear force was significantly and positively correlated with L*, a*, pH, collagen content and solubility, and texture index (P<0.01). The shear force had a significantly negative correlation with thawing loss, cooking loss, b*, β-galactosidase activity and β-glucuronidase activity (P<0.001). A significantly positive correlation with the pH and collagen properties (P<0.001). There were significantly positive correlation between collagen properties and texture (P<0.001). With the increase of freezing-thawing times, the tissue structure of yak meat showed severe damage, with blurred borders of muscle fibers. In conclusion, with the increase of freezing-thawing times, the collagen content of yak meat decreased, the solubility increased, the shear force decreased, and the texture worse, and the collagen characteristics had influenced the quality of yak meat, no more than 3 times of freezing-thawing was the suitable times to keep the processing quality of yak meat. The results provide theoretical basis and data support for the product development and quality control of yak meat.
In order to improve the hydrophobicity of tapioca starch, and used it as a granular emulsifier to improve the emulsification properties of myofibrillar protein (MP). In this study, a hydrophobic modification of native tapioca starch (NTS) by octenyl succinate anhydride (OSA), which produced ocentyl succinic tapioca starch (OSTS) with different modification levels and degrees of substitution (DS), and the compound emulsions were prepared using OSTS and MP. The structural changes of the OSTS were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and PLM, and the emulsion index (EI), emulsifying activity index (EAI), emulsion stability index (ESI), Zeta-potential, particle size distribution, sulfhydryl content, and interface protein content of the emulsions were determined. The results showed that the hydrophobic groups were successfully introduced in the tapioca starch molecules, and the hydrophobic modification treatment had basically no effect on the crystal structure type of the tapioca starch particles. The EAI and ESI of the OSTS-MP compound emulsions improved significantly (P<0.05) with increased starch modification levels and DS values, which of the 3.0% OSTS-MP compound emulsion had the best stability. The interaction of starch and MP in the compound emulsion impacted on the spatial structure of MP, both of them had a competitive adsorption effect at the emulsion droplet interface, and which of these were enhanced with modification levels and DS values. The results obtained provided a theoretical basis for the application of OSTS in emulsified comminuted meat products.
In order to analyze the nutrient composition of Holstein milk and Jersey milk under high-altitude feeding and its correlation with bacterial diversity, the nutrient components and bacterial diversity of the two types of milk were determined and correlation analysis was carried out in this study. The results showed that there were significant differences in the contents of basic components (fat, protein, dry matter and non-fat solids) and 14 amino acids, as well as in mineral contents of calcium and phosphorus, in the two types of milk (P<0.05). Their bacterial communities were similar in structure but different in abundance, with Cetobacterium, Aeromonas, Bacteroides, Akkermansia, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus being their common dominant genera. Heatmap of Spearman correlation analysis showed a correlation between bacterial community and milk composition. To sum up, the quality of Jersey milk was better than that of Holstein milk under high-altitude feeding, and the bacterial community may be affected by milk components.
The effects of different inoculation levels (105, 106 and 107 CFU/g) of Lactobacillus sakei on the quality characteristics of low-sodium dry sausages were investigated in this study. The uninoculated dry sausage was the control, and the moisture content, water activity, pH, lactic acid bacteria count, color and shear force were measured on days 0, 3, 6 and 9, respectively. Meanwhile, the flavor characteristics of the dry sausages on day 9 were analyzed by combination of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and electronic nose. The results showed that pH of dry sausages inoculated with 106 and 107 CFU/g L. sakei significantly decreased at the end of fermentation (P<0.05), and the inoculation of 106 CFU/g could promote the improvement of moisture content and water activity of final product compared with the control. In addition, the color and shear force of all dry sausages did not change significantly with the inoculation levels (P>0.05). The inoculation of L. sakei reduced the contents of aldehydes, and only the inoculation of 106 CFU/g increased the contents of alcohols, acids and esters (P<0.05), which caused a stronger characteristic odor than the control. Sensory evaluation results showed that inoculation of 106 CFU/g had the best effect on improving the bitterness and metallic taste, which resulted in the best overall acceptability of low-sodium dry sausages. Partial least squares regression analysis of physicochemical and sensory characteristics of dry sausages were consistent with the above results. The inoculation of 106 CFU/g had a positive effect on improving quality and developing good flavor of dry sausages.
In this paper, konjac glucomannan (KGM) and curdlan (CUD) were used to prepare biomass aerogels with different mass ratios (KGM/CUD, K1C0.6, K1C0.9, K1C1.2) based on sol-gel and vacuum freeze-drying methods. The four dominant strains of Aspergillus niger (Fen), Penicillium expansum (L), P. italicum (B3) and Bacillus sp. (WE-3) were used to degrade the composite aerogel, and the degradation morphology, weight change, microscopic morphology, molecular change, thermal stability and strain growth adaptability were investigated. The results showed that the aerogels collapsed and shrinking with abundant thallus on the surface. During the degradation process of the aerogel, the water from the environment was absorbed by the hygroscopicity of KGM, and the degradation process would be accelerated. FTIR showed that the long chains of polysaccharides were degraded into short chains after degradation, and no new groups were produced. SEM pictures expressed that the porous structure of aerogel was destroyed and the three-dimensional network structure collapsed. DSC analysis showed that the thermal stability of aerogel significantly decreased. The fungi Fen, L and B3 were suitable for the growth of KC aerogel environment, while the bacteria WE-3 struggled to adapt. This research was expected to provide theoretical reference for the biodegradation of polysaccharide composites.
In order to investigate the changes of components and biological activities of Auricularia auricula liquid after enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation, the Auricularia auricula liquid was firstly subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis using cellulase and pectinase, followed by joint fermentation using Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum with inoculation ratio of 1:1. The components of the Auricularia auricula liquid before and after enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation treatment was monitored. Their structure was characterized by Fourier infrared spectrum (FTIR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The antioxidant activity, anti-α amylase and anti-α- glucosidase activities in vitro were evaluated. The oxidative damage model of RAW264.7 cells induced by H2O2 was established, and the protective effect of different concentrations of Auricularia auricula fermentation broth on cell oxidative damage was evaluated by detecting the content of antioxidant enzymes. The effects of the fermentation broth on RAW264.7 cell proliferation, phagocytosis and cytokine release were also determined. Results showed that the total sugar content in the fermentation broth of Auricularia auricula increased to 539.14 mg?g?1 from 170.57 mg?g?1 in the untreated Auricularia auricula liquid, and the protein content increased from 15.00 mg?g?1 in the untreated Auricularia auricula liquid to 81.28 mg?g?1 simultaneously. The FTIR suggested that there were significant increase in -OH vibrations of polysaccharide in Auricularia auricula liquid after enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation treatment. The results of atomic force microscope showed that the three-dimensional structure of the fermentation broth of Auricularia auricula was in dense grain piles-like structure, and the polysaccharides in Auricularia auricula were hydrolyzed to produce more small molecules of sugars, and the content of branched chains increased and agglomerated. Compared with the untreated Auricularia auricula liquid, the α-amylase inhibition rate of the Auricularia auricula fermentation broth increased by 2.39 times when the concentration was 0.5 mg/mL. And 5 mg/mL of Auricularia auricula fermentation broth increased the bile salt binding capacity by 1.37 and 2.66 times of the Auricularia auricula hydrolysate and untreated Auricularia auricula liquid. The fermentation broth improved the proliferation and phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells and showed protective effect on oxidative damaged cells. The jointed treatment by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation greatly improved the functions of the active components of Auricularia auricula, which provided a theoretical basis for the further development and research of Auricularia auricula products.
In this experiment, ‘Jinsixiaozao’ fruit was used as raw material, the effects of extraction temperature, time, solid-liquid ratio and NaOH concentration on the yield of polysaccharide were investigated by single factor test. On this basis, Box-Behnken experiment was carried out to optimize the extraction process of alkali extracted polysaccharides. Its total sugar content, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectrum and antioxidant activity were determined. The results showed that the optimal conditions were solid-liquid ratio 1:35 (g/mL), extraction temperature 80 ℃, extraction time 120 min, and NaOH concentration 0.2 mol/L, the polysaccharides yield was 11.44% with total sugar content of 69.39%. Scanning electron microscopic observations showed that it had irregular block structure with compact inside. The infrared spectrum showed that the alkali extracted polysaccharide of jujube had the characteristic absorption peaks of acid polysaccharides such as C=O and C-H. The antioxidant activity experiments showed that the alkali extracted polysaccharide had a certain ability to scavenge free radicals, and the IC50 for DPPH and superoxide anion free radicals were 1.201 mg/mL and 1.176 mg/mL, respectively. This study provides a reference for further developing functional foods of jujube polysaccharides and studying the structure-activity relationship of alkali extracted polysaccharides.
The aim of this study was to treat purple sweet potato by microwave combined with high pressure to improve its antioxidant capacity and inhibit the occurrence of the browning reaction. Then, the modified purple sweet potato was used as raw materials for the development of biscuits, and the processing recipe was optimized by the orthogonal test and fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation method. Anthocyanin content and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in purple sweet potato were used as indicators, the optimal conditions of microwave combined high pressure treatment determined by a single factor test were microwave power 450 W, microwave time 20 min, high-pressure temperature 115 ℃, and high-pressure time 40 min, and the anthocyanin content increased by 2.56-fold and polyphenol oxidase activity decreased by 45.71% under the optimal conditions compared to the native purple sweet potato, respectively. Furthermore, sensory evaluation was used as indicator, the best processing recipe of modified purple sweet potato-based biscuits was low-gluten flour 40 g, modified purple sweet potato powder 60 g, white granulated sugar 45 g, butter 75 g, egg 60 g, and edible salt 1 g optimized by orthogonal optimization and fuzzy mathematics comprehensive evaluation method. The prepared modified purple sweet potato-based biscuits had uniform color, complete appearance, crisp taste and the flavor of purple sweet potato.
In order to improve the nutritional value of traditional fried rice and improve its flavor components, this study took indica rice flour as raw material, added an appropriate proportion of Lentinus edodes powder, squeezed the rice by extruding and granulating Lentinus edodes, and then obtained instant extruded Lentinus edodes stir-fried rice after stir-frying treatment. A response surface methodology was used to optimize the best process of extruded Lentinus edodes stir-fried rice, followed by an analysis of its nutritional and flavour components, to provide a reference for the development and production of recombinant stir-fried rice. The results showed that the optimal process conditions for extruded Lentinus edodes stir-fried rice were: the amount of Lentinus edodes powder 5.60%, the stir-frying temperature 225 ℃, the frying time 60 s. Under the optimized conditions, the comprehensive score of extruded Lentinus edodes stir-fried rice was 80.62±0.55, closed to the theoretical predicted value. The results of the basic nutrient composition showed an increase significantly in total dietary fibre content and fat content and a decrease significantly in total starch content (P<0.05) in the extruded Lentinus edodes stir-fried rice compared to the blank stir-fried rice. The electronic nose and gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) results showed that the volatile components of the blank extruded rice, blank stir-fried rice, extruded rice with Lentinus edodes and extruded Lentinus edodes stir-fried rice could be well differentiated and 54 volatile substances were detected and identified. Compared with blank extruded rice, the relative content of aldehydes and ketones in blank stir-fried rice increased. Compared with blank stir-fried rice, the relative content of ketones and esters in extruded Lentinus edodes stir-fried rice increased. Compared with the extruded rice with Lentinus edodes, the relative content of aldehydes, alcohols and ketones in extruded Lentinus edodes stir-fried rice increased.
The polysaccharides from Lonicera japonica were extracted by the hot water extraction method, and the effects of solid-liquid ratio, extraction time, extraction temperature and extraction times on the yield of polysaccharides were investigated by a single factor test. On this basis, the response surface method was used to optimize the extraction conditions. The antioxidant activity of crude polysaccharides from Lonicera japonica were evaluated by measuring DPPH free radical, ABTS+ free radical, hydroxyl free radical, superoxide anion free radical scavenging ability and total reducing power. The results showed that the optimal extraction process conditions of polysaccharides from Lonicera japonica were as follow: solid-liquid ratio of 1:30 (g/mL), extraction time of 120 min, and extraction temperature of 70 ℃. Under these conditions, the actual yield of polysaccharides from Lonicera japonica was 6.45%±0.15%, and the relative error with the predicted value was 1.2%. When the concentration of crude polysaccharides was 2 mg/mL, the maximum scavenging rates of DPPH free radical, ABTS+ free radical, hydroxyl free radical and superoxide anion free radical were 88.56%, 99.51%, 46.40% and 85.88%, respectively. Besides, the total reducing power was 1.04. The optimized crude polysaccharides had an excellent antioxidant activity, which provided a theoretical basis for further isolation, purification and characterization of active polysaccharides from Lonicera japonica.
In order to obtain high-quality Auricularia auricula glycoprotein and clarify its monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the process conditions of ultrasonic assisted alkaline extraction of Auricularia auricula glycoprotein were optimized by single factor experiment and response surface methodology, and the glycoprotein was separated and purified by AKTAgo purifier and DEAE GE Healthcare chromatographic column, and its monosaccharide and amino acid composition were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The optimum extraction conditions of Auricularia auricula glycoprotein were: ultrasonic time 90 min, material liquid ratio 1:90 g/L, ultrasonic power 200 W, pH8.4, extraction temperature 45 ℃, and the comprehensive score of glycoprotein extraction was 55.93. After separation and purification, the purity of the glycoprotein was 74.1% and the protein recovery rate was 37.5%. The monosaccharide composition of the glycoprotein was mainly glucose (9.95 mg/g) and mannose (5.24 mg/g), and the amino acids were mainly L-aspartic acid/L-asparagine (1.16 mg/g), L-phenylalanine (1.14 mg/g) and L-glutamic acid/L-glutamine (1.10 mg/g). Therefore, the ultrasonic alkali method can effectively improve the extraction efficiency of Auricularia auricula glycoprotein, and the Auricularia auricula glycoprotein contains acidic heteropolysaccharides and the necessary amino acids are complete, which provides a scientific reference for the in-depth research and application development of Auricularia auricula glycoprotein.
In this study, the effects of cellulase addition, ethanol volume fraction, cellulase digestion time and ultrasound time on the extraction rate of Moringa oleifera seeds polyphenols were investigated. At the same time, the extraction process of Moringa oleifera seeds polyphenols by ultrasound-assisted cellulase method was optimized using response surface methodology. In addition, the in vitro antioxidant and hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Moringa oleifera seeds polyphenols were also investigated. The results showed that the optimal process for the extraction of Moringa oleifera seed polyphenols by ultrasound-assisted cellulase was 0.30% enzyme addition, 53.00% volume fraction of ethanol, 31.00 min enzymatic digestion time, and 31.00 min ultrasound time. Under this process condition, the amount of Moringa oleifera seed polyphenols extracted obtained was 6.90 mg/g, which was not significantly different from the predicted value. In addition, the study found that Moringa oleifera seed polyphenols had good antioxidant activity, and its IC50 for scavenging ABTS radicals and DPPH radicals were 0.76 and 0.61 mg/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, Moringa oleifera seed polyphenols had some pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibitory activities, and theirs IC50 for pancreatic lipase and α-amylase inhibition rate were 1.35 and 6.55 mg/mL, respectively. This study provides a theoretical basis for the extraction and application of Moringa oleifera seed polyphenols.
To promote the application of Leucosceptrum canum honey in food processing and improve its potential development and utilization value, in this study, Leucosceptrum canum honey yogurt was prepared with Leucosceptrum canum honey and cow milk as raw materials. The preparation process of Leucosceptrum canum honey yogurt was optimized based on a single-factor experiment and response surface test. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) were used to analyze the free fatty acids and volatile flavor components of Leucosceptrum canum honey yogurt. The results showed that the best formula for Leucosceptrum canum honey yogurt was 1.2% Leucosceptrum canum honey, 7% sucrose, and 9 h fermentation time. The sensory score was 87.5±1.3, and the related physical and chemical health indicators of the product met the standard requirements. At the same time, compared with the yogurt without Leucosceptrum canum honey, the content of unsaturated fatty acids in Leucosceptrum canum honey yogurt increased. There were 74 volatile flavor components in Leucosceptrum canum honey yogurt, among which the contents of hydrocarbons and esters were higher. And the relative contents of phenols, esters, and ketones were increased by 4.06%, 1.35%, and 1.35%, respectively, compared with the blank yogurt. The overall flavor quality was improved. The yogurt prepared with Leucosceptrum canum honey and cow milk, had delicate tissue, good stability, and good flavor. The yogurt product was health with certain characteristics.
In this paper, the effect of the magnetic field on the optical properties of cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) films with different surface groups was investigated. T-CNC with carboxyl groups on its surface was prepared from cellulose sulfate nanocrystals (S-CNC) by 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxy radical (TEMPO) oxidation. Its basic structure was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and zeta potential. The effects of magnetic field on CNC films with different surface charges were observed in four modes: no magnetic field, vertical magnetic field, inclined magnetic field, and horizontal magnetic field. The results showed that T-CNC had carboxyl groups on its surface and S-CNC had sulfate groups on its surface. The absolute value of T-CNC potential was lower than that of S-CNC due to the different surface charges. The two kinds of CNC exhibited different self-assembly modes due to the difference in surface charges, in which T-CNC was concentric self-assembly and S-CNC was chiral nematic self-assembly, and the difference in self-assembly modes was not changed by the magnetic field. However, the arrangement of T-CNC and S-CNC in self-assembly process was affected by the magnetic field. With the different orientations of the magnetic field, the color of the two films was affected by the change in the arrangement of CNC. Among them, the vertical magnetic field had the most significant effect on the two kinds of CNC films, which could make the arrangement of CNC in the films more uniform and closer, thus improving the uniformity of film color. The color response of CNC self-assembled films with different surface groups under different magnetic fields lays a foundation for the subsequent regulation of CNC iridescent films and their application in the field of packaging.
Purple rice is susceptible to the influence of internal and external factors such as temperature, humidity and oxygen during storage, and proper packaging can effectively inhibit aging and mildew of purple rice. In this study, purple rice was packed and stored for 98 days using four packaging materials with different barrier properties, AL/PE, PA/PE single-sided embossed, PA/PE, PE/EVOH/PA/PE, and the dynamic changes of moisture content, fatty acid value, protein content, mold count, electrical conductivity, color value, color difference, E-nose odor, morphological structure and other indicators of purple rice were measured periodically during storage and correlation analysis was performed for each indicator. The results showed that the moisture content of purple rice increased and then decreased, the conductivity increased and then decreased, the △E and fatty acid value increased, the protein content increased slightly and then decreased, the mold count increased and then decreased to stable, and the electronic nose could significantly distinguish purple rice in different storage periods and different packaging materials. From the moisture content, △E, color value, fatty acid value and morphological structure indexes, the quality of purple rice packed with high barrier material PE/EVOH/PA/PE was more stable, and from the indexes of mold count and conductivity, the quality of purple rice packed with PA/PE single-sided embossed material was more stable.
The establishment of food safety demonstration cities is an important carrier of the food safety governance system. This article systematically reviews food safety management system related research. By covering four governance subjects as "party and government sharing responsibility", government supervision, market subjects, social co-governance and 27 evaluation indicators as governance standards such as the creation of production specification and industrial transformation and upgrading. It analyzes food safety demonstration cities in Zhejiang Province by analytic hierarchy process. The result shows that the establishment of demonstration cities by applying secret investigations, on-site inspection, system evaluation, exemplary defense and leveraging certain evaluation process and evaluation standard is an important carrier to achieve the modernization of food safety. Food safety governance system includes "governance carrier-governance subject-governance standard-governance target". The efficiency of food safety governance is highly correlated with dynamic evaluation, public satisfaction and systematic assessment.
To provide reference for the safety consumption of Phyllanthus acidus (PA) as food and its further medicinal development and utilization, a comparative study on acute and short-termtoxicity and α-glucosidase inhibitory ability of different components of its branches and leaves was conducted. The crude extract of PA, prepared under aqueous ethanol reflux extraction, was partitioned successively with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and N-butanol according to the polarity. Furthermore, an alcohol-eluted and water-eluted fractions were obtained from water-soluble residue by column chromatography. The half inhibitory concentration (IC50) of α-glucosidase was used as the evaluation index to compare the in vitro hypoglycemic activity of different extracts. The acute toxicity of these fractions was screened by maximum tolerated dose (MTD), median lethal dose (LD50) values, and their subacute toxicity was evaluated by continuous oral administration of samples for 20 days. The results showed that each component of PA had a certain inhibitory ability to α-glucosidase. The MTD of crude extract of PA was 2.0 g/kg, and the order of acute toxicity for different fractions was ethanol-eluted fraction>water-eluted fraction>petroleum ether fraction>ethyl acetate fraction>N-butanol fraction>crude extract. The main acute toxicity symptoms were startle followed by idling, writhing, and shortness of breath. Subacute toxicity test showed no obvious toxicity and lesions. It was indicated that it was safe to take 2 g/kg/d (equivalent to 8.6 g/kg of dried branches and leaves) of the whole component of PA at oral ingestion. Thus, they have the potential to be developed as hypoglycemic, weight-loss food and medicine.
In order to reveal the aroma components of sun-dried black tea and explore the suitable varieties of sun-dried black tea, the aroma components of 10 tea varieties were analyzed by HS-SPME-GC-MS, and determined the main volatile aroma components of each samples by using the activity value of relative odor. The results showed that there were great differences in aroma components, relative content and ROAV value of sun-dried black tea produced by different varieties of tea plants. The relative content of alcohols in sun-dried black tea from 10 samples was the highest, and the relative content of linalool in alcohols was the highest. The results of ROAV value analysis showed that although linalool had the highest relative content in all 10 samples of sun-dried black tea, linalool was only one of the key aromatic substances and not the largest contributor. Qingshui 3, 73-11, population species, Yunkang 10, Yuncha Purui, Yunkang 37 and 73-8 had the highest contribution of β-ionone to aroma. Changyebaihao and Yunkang 14 had the highest contribution of β-ionone to aroma. Yunkang 43 had the highest contribution of 1-methylnaphthalene to aroma. This study clarifies that Qingshui 3, 73-11 and population species are more suitable for the production of sun-dried black tea, which provides a theoretical basis for the quality improvement of Yunnan black tea and screening suitable tea varieties for sun-dried black tea.
To expand the application of novel nanomaterial based solid phase extraction technology in complex food matrices, a sulfonic acid based covalent organic framework (TpPa-SO3H) was prepared as solid phase extraction adsorbents for the rapid analysis of three fluoroquinolones (FQs) antibiotics in milk by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). TpPa-SO3H was rapidly prepared by mechanical grinding, and its merits as novel solid phase adsorbents with high efficiency were fully explored in the detection towards FQs antibiotics. The effect of adsorbent dosage, pH of sample solution, adsorption time and desorption conditions were investigated to determine the effect of nanomaterial structure and properties on the solid phase extraction efficiency and the reproducibility with quantitative analysis capacity of this method. The results showed that TpPa-SO3H possessed large specific surface area and abundant sulfonic acid functional sites, which could combine with FQs antibiotics efficiently and selectively. Under optimal operation conditions, the extraction recovery of three FQs antibiotic were in the range of 94.23%～98.68% within 4.0 min, which was significantly better than the national standard method. Thus a new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the rapid analysis of FQs antibiotics in milk was established based on TpPa-SO3H solid phase extraction, and the method owned the advantages of high sensitivity, excellent anti-interference ability, good repeatability, simplicity and rapidity. The detection limit of the three FQs antibiotics were in the range of 0.002～0.004 mg/kg, indicating that the method could be used for the detection of ultra-trace FQs antibiotics in real samples. In conclusion, the solid phase extraction combined with HPLC based on TpPa-SO3H has realized the rapid detection of trace FQs antibiotics in milk with high sensitivity and selectivity, which indicating its great potential in scientific research and practical application.
In order to explore the difference in fruit quality between Hainan domesticated durian variety Zhongre No. 1 and other main commercial varieties, this experiment used the difference significance analysis to compare 10 appearance quality, 5 nutritional quality and 8 mineral quality indexes of 11 durian varieties, and the principal component analysis and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method were used for comprehensive evaluation. Correlation analysis showed that pulp weight and fruit longitudinal diameter were the most relevant indicators of fruit appearance quality with durian internal quality. Through the PCA of 23 indexes, five principal components were extracted, of which the contribution rates of principal component 1 and principal component 2 were 33.344% and 19.889%, respectively. The "fruit size" (single fruit weight, fruit longitudinal diameter, fruit transverse diameter, pulp weight), K、Zn content in principal component 1, and Mg、Ca content in principal component 2 were the main indicators in durian variety evaluation. The comprehensive scores of durian variety quality indicators were as follows from large to small: Zhongre No. 1, Sultan King, Kang Yaojin, Jianghai, Hulu King, Musang King, Black Thorn, Tomani, Suzaku, D101, and Fire Phoenix. To summarize, Zhongre No.1 and Kang Yaojin had good appearance quality and high contents of K and Zn elements, Jianghai and Sultan King had high contents of Mg and Ca elements, Black Thorn and D101 had good nutritional quality, all of them could be introduced as excellent durian germplasm resources. "Fruit size" and Mg, Ca mineral elements content were the key indexes to evaluate the comprehensive quality of durian, which provided a reference basis for the quality screening and identification of durian varieties.
Currently, compound umami products in China are in the initial stage of development, which have not formed a systematic study yet. Hence, 12 kinds of commercially available compound umami products were analyzed for 17 free amino acids. It was found that the taste activity values (TAV) of glutamic acid (Glu) contributed the most, with TAV ranging from 4.12 to 228.86. The correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation between other amino acids, except for Glu. Meanwhile, three principal components were extracted, with the cumulative variance contribution of 93.19%, which could effectively reflect most of information on the free amino acids in compound umami products. Partial least squares (PLS) analysis revealed a consistency between evaluation of umami taste and equivalent umami concentrations (EUC). This paper systematically evaluated the taste characteristics of compound umami products and provided a theoretical reference for research and development of compound umami products.
Objective: A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with immunoaffinity column clean-up method was established for the determination of 8 mycotoxins in aquatic products. Methods: The samples were extracted with acetonitrile water (84:16, V:V), and purified by multifunctional immunoaffinity columns. The chromatographic column was Agilent Proshell 120 SB·C18 column (2.1 mm×100 mm, 2.7 μm). Mobile phase was methanol and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate (containing 0.1% formic acid), gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.4 mL/min, and the column temperature was 40 ℃. The electrospray was operated in both positive and negative mode at the same time, and the samples were detected by multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Results: The linear relations of the eight mycotoxins were good within the concentration range of 1.0~50.0 ng/mL (R2>0.992). The limits of detection were between 0.05~0.50 μg/kg, and the limits of quantification were between 0.17~1.65 μg/kg. The average recoveries were 75.6%~106.3%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 3.5%~9.3%. Conclusion: The method is simple, sensitive and accurate for the rapid analysis of mycotoxin residues in aquatic products.
Based on the analysis of characteristics of mineral elements contents of foxtail millet from different producing areas, the geographical origin discrimination models were established in combination with chemometrics. In this study, major cultivars of foxtail millet from Longzhong area, Longdong area and Hexi area of Gansu Province were regarded as main research objects. The contents of 18 mineral elements in foxtail millet were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the data was analyzed by one way ANOVA, principal component analysis (PCA), orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The results showed that there was a significant difference for 13 mineral elements out 18 in foxtail millet from three producing areas (P<0.05), and mineral elements contents of foxtail millet showed distinct regional distribution characteristic. Correlation analysis showed there were significant relationships between 18 mineral elements. Four principal components were extracted after PCA, and the cumulative contribution ratio of the four components was 75.82%. Correct discrimination rates of LDA and OPLS-DA models were both 100%, which could be used for the geographical origin discriminantion of foxtail millet in different producing areas of Gansu Province, and six characteristic elements (V、Fe、Cu、Cd、Se、Pb) of foxtail millet from different producing areas were screened by OPLS-DA models. HCA regarding the characteristic elements as variables could classify the foxtail millet into different categories, which was consistent with their geographical origins. The research suggests that the discrimination model based on mineral element contents can effectively identify foxtail millet from different producing areas, which provides a scientific basis for origin traceability discrimination and quality control of foxtail millet.
In order to provide theoretical basis for developing and utilizing new varieties of hot peppers, five new varieties of pod peppers (Capsicum annum var. Conoides) hybridized with different combinations by three lines cultivation were selected and numbered as Sample 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, and their agronomic traits and quality characteristics with an emphasis on capsaicinoids and volatile components were evaluated. The results showed that the peppers had different agronomic traits with their ranges of fruit length, fruit mass, seed number ratio and pulp ratio being 6.7~9.3 cm, 2.40~6.26 g, 15.3~28.1 grain/g, and 71.10%~83.93%, respectively. All the samples possessed high nutritional values but their contents of major nutrients were not the same. Sample 1 contained the highest carbohydrates, crude fats and ash. Sample 2 had the highest water content. Sample 3 contained the highest vitamin C. Sample 5 had the highest protein content. All the samples possessed higher capsaicinoids content and pungency degree, of which Sample 5 had the highest content of capsaicinoids (1.128 g/kg), Scoville index (17399 SHU) and pungency degree (116) while Sample 2 showed the lowest content of capsaicinoids (0.464 g/kg), Scoville index (7157 SHU) and pungency degree (48). A total of 100 volatile components were detected in the five samples, among which olefins were the most abundant component, ranging from 39.20% to 61.73%. Olefins, esters and alcohols were the common aromatic substances of the samples, but their types and contents were different. Pearson correlation analysis displayed that the pungency degrees of the five samples were extremely significantly negatively correlated with their fruit mass and pulp raio (P<0.01) but extremely significantly positively with their seed number ratio (P<0.01). In summary, five new varieties of pod peppers show higher pungency degree and nutritive value, good color and smell and are suitable for drying, especially Sample 5. Also, Samples 2, 3 and 4 can be consumed in fresh state and be used to prepare pickled, salted and fermented pepper products.
A method was established for simultaneous detection of 19 sulfonamides in seafood by multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The samples were extracted with formic acid acetonitrile after being fully wetted with water. QuEChERS salt pack were added to the system to separate into organic and aqueous phases. The upper fraction was purified on an m-PFC column before analysis by LC-MS/MS, the samples were analyzed in multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode and quantify by the matrix-matched external standard method. The results showed that 19 sulfonamides had good linearity in the range of 1~100 μg/L with determination coefficients higher than 0.997. The detection limits were in the range of 0.005~0.15 μg/kg, and the quantitation limits were 0.01~0.41 μg/kg. At three spiked levels of 10, 20 and 100 μg/kg, the average recoveries of 19 sulfonamides ranged from 70.0% to 114.1%, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 0.5%~9.4%. This method is simple, highly sensitive and reproducible, and is suitable for the detection of sulfonamides in seafood.
The deterioration of the quality of litchi pulp is closely related to oxygen and heat treatment. This study compared the effects of conventional beating (CB) and low-oxygen beating (LB) on the quality of litchi pulp, and the effect of low-oxygen beating combined with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) and heat treatment on the quality of litchi pulp during storage at 4 ℃ was also studied. The results showed that when compared to conventional beating, low-oxygen beating had no significant effect on the total soluble solid, pH and total acid of litchi pulp (P>0.05), while the L* value increased significantly (P<0.05), the a* value decreased significantly (P<0.05), the total phenolic content increased by 24.70%. Except for proanthocyanidins B2, rutin, catechins and vanillic acid, the content of other 6 monomeric phenolics increased significantly (P<0.05). During the storage process, the L* value of litchi pulp treatment of different beating methods combined with HPP and HT showed a downward trend and the a* value showed an upward trend, and the L* value of LB+HHP group was always the highest. Stored for 28 days, the total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging capacity and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power of the low-oxygen beating combined with HHP treatment group were higher than those of the other three groups. In conclusion, low-oxygen beating can better keep the color, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of litchi pulp, and reduce the quality degradation of litchi pulp treated by HHP and heat during the storage, of which LB+HHP treatment has more advantages, which can be used as a new litchi pulp processing technology.
This research investigated egg freshness of Roman pink in 4 storage temperature change groups. The shell eggs were storage for 0, 10, 20, 30 d, and weight loss, gas chamber height, Haugh unit, yolk index, thick-to-thin albumen ratio and albumen pH of all shell egg experiment groups were evaluated. The results showed that weight loss increased significantly (P<0.05), whereas gas chamber height and thick-to-thin albumen ratio decreased significantly (P<0.05) in shell eggs of treatment group 2, group 3 and group 4. The pH of all experiment group eggs (except control group) firstly increased and then decreased. The significant decrease (P<0.05) of yolk index was detected in eggs of treatment group 3 and group 4. The Haugh unit, yolk index and thick-to-thin albumen ratio in control and treatment group 1 shell eggs were significantly higher than that of treatment group 3 and group 4. The pH of treatment group 2 shell eggs, stored for 10~20 days, was significant (P<0.05) higher than that of control and treatment group 1. Therefore, the shell eggs stored for first 10 days at ambient temperature (≥20 ℃), showed significant increase of weight loss and decrease of Haugh unit. The results of this study indicate that the freshness of the shell eggs following storage temperature change treatments is more prone to deterioration compared with that of low temperature storage (4 ℃).
To investigate the effects of different packaging methods for preservation on the quality of Chinese flowering cabbages, kitchen towel (ZJ), common plastic bags (CPE), and modified atmosphere bags (EFB and JG) were used to keep them fresh, with untreated ones as the control (CK). The Chinese flowering cabbages were stored at room temperature (18～23 ℃) or low temperature (4～6 ℃) for 5 days and 25 days, respectively. Then, they were evaluated for commerciality in appearance, rotting rate, etiolation rate, weight loss, and changes in the content of chlorophyll, water, soluble sugar and vitamin C. The results showed that the fresh-keeping effect of modified atmosphere bags (EFB and JG) was better than that of CPE and CK, and ZJ exhibited the worst effect. Compared with other methods, Chinese flowering cabbages packed with EFB and JG showed higher commerciality in appearance and maintain higher nutritional quality. Among them, JG had an even better fresh-keeping effect, with a rotting rate of 0.03%, an etiolation rate of 0.42%, a weight loss of 1.55%, and a minor decrease in chlorophyll content and water content (5.01% and 1.26%, respectively) after 25 days of low temperature storage; on the other hand, when compared with day 1, there was no significant difference in the content of soluble sugar after 15 days of low temperature storage (P>0.05). In addition, the content of vitamin C only decreased by 11.43%, a value significantly lower than that of any other methods (P<0.05). To sum up, the storage under low temperature with modified atmosphere bags can prolong the freshness lifetime of Chinese flowering cabbages, which is ideal for their storage and preservation.
Objective: To explore the lipid-lowering effect of compound seabuckthorn concentrate in hyperlipidemia model rats. Methods: Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into blank-control group, high-fat diet group, positive control group (lovastatin capsules 1.80 mg/kg·bw), compound seabuckthorn concentrate low (3.57 mL/kg·bw), medium (7.14 mL/kg·bw), high (14.28 mL/kg·bw) dose groups. The hyperlipidemia rat models were established by feeding high-fat diet. The blank-control group and the high-fat diet group were given the same amount of normal saline by gavage, and the rats of experimental groups were given the corresponding dose of compound seabuckthorn concentrate and lovastatin suspension by gavage, respectively. After 28 days of administration, the body weight, Lee's index, serum lipid level, antioxidant level, liver index and liver pathological morphology of rats in each group were observed and analyzed. Results: Compared with the blank-control group, the body weight and Lee's index of the high-fat diet group were significantly increased (P<0.01), indicating that the models were successfully constructed. The contents of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum of the positive control group and the compound seabuckthorn concentrate high dose group were lower than those of the high-fat diet group, while the contents of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were significantly increased (P<0.01, P<0.05). The degree of liver swelling was relatively decreased in each experimental group. Fat vacuoles were also significantly reduced in the cytoplasm. Conclusion: Compound seabuckthorn concentrate can improve the lipid level of hyperlipidemia rats and have antioxidant and liver protection effects.
Objective: To study the sleep-improving effect of Ziziphi spinosae Semen Poria cocos powder and soybean peptide powder on insomnia model mice induced by p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA). Methods: One hundred eighty SPF male BALB/c mice were purchased. First, ninety of them were randomly divided into six groups (normal control group, model control group, low, medium and high dose groups of Ziziphi spinosae Semen Poria cocos powder, soybean peptide powder group) for the pentobarbital sodium-induced sleep test. The remaining 90 mice were randomly divided into six groups (same group as above) for the open field test, the contents of hypothalamic 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus were measured and the contents of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamic acid (Glu) in the hippocampus were measured. The normal control group and the model control group were administered with sterile water while the low, medium and high dose groups of Ziziphi spinosae Semen Poria cocos powder were administered with 0.67, 1.33, 4.00 g/kg BW solution and the soybean peptide powder groupwas administered with 1.15 g/kg BW solution. The gavage volume of rats was 20 mL/kg BW. The sleep test lasted for 36 days and the open field test lasted for 37 days. On the 29th and 30th day, except the normal control group, the other mice were given intraperitoneal injection of PCPA (350 mg/kg BW) to construct an insomnia model and then continued to be administered for 6, 7 d. Results: Compared with the model control group, Ziziphi spinosae Semen Poria cocos powder could significantly shorten the sleep latency induced by pentobarbital sodium, prolong sleep time, reduce horizontal score, vertical score and modified score, significantly increase the contents of 5-HT and 5-HIAA in the hypothalamus, reducing NE content, reduce Glu content in the hippocampus, improve the hippocampal GABA content, regulate the Glu/GABA ratio and maintain Glu/GABA balance in the hippocampus. Soybean peptide powder could significantly prolong sleep time and maintain Glu/GABA balance. Conclusion: Ziziphi spinosae Semen Poria cocos powder has a certain ameliorative effect on sleep in insomnia model mice by elevating monoamine neurotransmitter 5-HT content and reducing NE content in the hypothalamic of insomnia mice, promoting the sleep wake state of insomnia mice toward normal recovery. It also can regulate Glu and GABA content in the hippocampal and maintain the homeostatic balance of Glu and GABA.
In this study, 3.5% DSS was used to construct an animal model of colonic inflammation in mice, in order to study the relieving effect of commercially available pasteurized fermented milk on colitis mice and the possible mechanism. The effect of pasteurized fermented milk was studied by evaluating the disease activity index (DAI) in mice, observing colon tissue structure by HE staining, analyzing intestinal short-chain fatty acid content by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), detecting inflammatory factors in colon tissue by ELISA levels, measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) content and using immunohistochemistry for tight junction protein expression. The results of the study showed that pasteurized fermented milk could reduce the disease activity index DAI, alleviate colon tissue damage, increase the content of acetic acid, isopropionic acid, valerate acid and total acid in the intestinal short-chain fatty acids of mice, reduce the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and leukocyte-mediated interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in mice, and increase the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-10 (IL-10) secretion and decrease MPO activity. Further research showed that pasteurized fermented milk could increase the expression of tight junction proteins in the mouse gut and enhance intestinal epithelial barrier function. Therefore, pasteurized fermented milk could not only alleviate the symptoms of intestinal inflammation in mice, but might play its role by regulating the body's immunity and strengthening the intestinal barrier.
Objective: To evaluate the effects of camellia oil on lipid metabolism in free fatty acid-induced HepG2 hepatocytes. Methods: To screen the optimal concentration of action, the effect of camellia oil on HepG2 activity was assessed by CCK-8 assay. HepG2 cells were exposed to different concentrations of camellia oil for 24 h, after which the cells were treated with 0.5 mmol/L free fatty acids for 24 h to induce in vitro model of liver steatosis. Then, intracellular lipid content was detected using Oil Red O staining. Lipid profiles were measured by commercial kits. The mRNA expression of genes related to lipid metabolism was measured by qRT-PCR to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of camellia oil in regulating lipid metabolism. Results: Compared with the normal control group, fatty acids induction significantly increased the contents of triglyceride (TG) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (P<0.05), and decreased the content of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (P<0.05). Interestingly, camellia oil pretreatment significantly reversed the changes in intracellular contents of TG, HDL-C and LDL-C induced by fatty acids incubation (P<0.05). In addition, compared with the model group, camellia oil pretreatment significantly decreased the mRNA expression of fatty acid transporter (CD36), fatty acid synthase (FAS), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) (P<0.05), and increased the mRNA expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARɑ), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1A (CPT1A) (P<0.05). Conclusions: Camellia oil may alleviate the lipid metabolism disorder induced by free fatty acids in HepG2 cells partly by modulating the expression levels of genes involved in lipid lipogenesis and oxidation.
To investigate the effect of mangiferin on the glycolipid metabolism disorder in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats and its underlying mechanism, T2DM rats were randomly divided into model control group, metformin group (100 mg/kg), and low-, medium- and high-dose mangiferin groups (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg), 10 rats in each group, and a normal control group was set (10 healthy rats). The rats were intragastrically administered with the different agents once a day, successively for 8 weeks. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and fasting insulin (FINS) were determined, the insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) was calculated, the contents of serum free fatty acid (FFA), triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were measured, the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissue of rats were tested, and the mRNA and proteins related to the insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)/protein kinase B (Akt)/glucose transporter 4 (Glut4) signaling pathway in the liver tissue of rats were detected. The results showed that mangiferin could improve the general status of T2DM rats, including their hair color, activity and spirits, and slow down the trend of weight loss. Compared with those in the model control group, the contents of FBG, FINS, HOMA-IR and serum FFA, TG and TC in the mangiferin-treated groups were significantly or extremely significantly decreased after the intragastric administration of mangiferin for 8 weeks (P<0.05, P<0.01). The activities of GSH-Px, CAT and SOD in the liver tissue of rats in the mangiferin-treated groups were significantly or extremely significantly higher than those in the model control group (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the content of MDA in the liver tissue of rats was extremely significantly lower than that in the model control group (P<0.01). The expression of IRS-1 mRNA in the liver tissue of rats in the low-, medium- and high-dose mangiferin groups was not significantly different from that in the model control group (P>0.05), the expression levels of Akt, Glut4 mRNA, and p-IRS-1 (Tyr), Akt and Glut4 proteins increased significantly or extremely significantly (P<0.05, P<0.01), while the expression of p-IRS-1 (Ser) protein decreased significantly or extremely significantly compared with that in the model control group (P<0.05, P<0.01). The above results indicate that mangiferin can improve the glycolipid metabolism disorder in T2DM rats, which may be related to its antioxidant stress and regulation on the IRS-1/Akt/Glut4 signaling pathway.
Colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease with relapsing properties and the incidence has been increased in recent decades. More and more studies show that probiotics can be used to alleviate colitis. In this study, a mouse model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was constructed to explore the alleviating effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 1201 on DSS-induced colitis. The experimental mice were divided into normal group, model group and 1201 group. Colitis was induced in the other groups except the normal group. At the same time, mice in the 1201 group were given 0.2 mL of 1×109 CFU/mL L. plantarum 1201 by gavage daily for 12 days. Then, the colon morphology of mice was observed by H&E staining, the fecal albumin content of mice was detected, and the mRNA level of NF-κB, inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-22, IFN-γ, IL-17A, TGF-β1) and tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Ocludin and Claudin-3) in colon were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR technology. In addition, 16S rRNA high sequencing technology was used to detect the changes of intestinal flora in mice, and metabolomics was used to analyze the changes of intestinal metabolites. The results showed that L. plantarum 1201 increased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Akkermansia, reduced the relative abundance of Escherichia, and reduced the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes, to improve the balance of intestinal flora. Meanwhile, L. plantarum 1201 also inhibited NF-κB and the inflammatory factors (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-22, IFN-γ). In addition, it increased the mRNA expression of colon tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Ocludin and Claudin-3) and the serum level of beneficial metabolites, including α-Tocopherol and L-Fucose. In conclusion, the results show that L. plantarum 1201 has the potential to alleviate colitis.
In this paper, through the direct sleep experiment, the experiment of prolonging the sleep time of pentobarbital sodium, the hypnosis experiment of subthreshold dose of pentobarbital sodium and the sleep latency experiment of pentobarbital sodium, the effects of compound preparations of Ziziphus jujuba extract, longan lour extract, γ-amino butyric acid and casein hydrolysate on sleep improvement in mice were studied. Experiment selected 48 mice as the research object, were randomly divided into control group, high, medium and low dose group, gavage compound preparation after 4 weeks, and the corresponding indicators were measured. The results showed that the compound preparation could significantly prolong the sleep time of mice induced by pentobarbital sodium at high, medium and low doses. The sleep time of the high dose group was 3793±1100 s, the sleep time of the medium dose group was 3591±1589 s, and the sleep time of the low dose group was 3218±582 s, while the sleep time of the control group was only 1556±686 s. The sleep latency of mice hypnotized by barbital sodium was shortened in the high-dose, middle-dose and low-dose compound preparations. The sleep latency was 171±58 s, 165±40 s and 184±52 s respectively. The sleep latency of the control group was 300±155 s. All dose groups of the compound preparation had no significant effect on direct sleep and no significant effect on the body weight of mice.
In the Chinese traditional diet, grain is the most cost-effective and crucial source of human energy. However, in recent years, China's grain consumption has decreased year after year. Furthermore, a grain-based diet is inefficient in terms of digestion and absorption, and some grains contain anti-nutrients. At the same time, a lack of product innovation limits the use and promotion of grain products. Germination and fermentation have been shown to affect changes in cereal nutritional and functional active components, improve cereal digestion and absorption in humans, reduce allergic reactions in some populations, and improve cereal flavor, all of which can improve cereal nutrition and use value. This paper primarily examines the effects of germination and fermentation on the nutritional and functional active ingredients of cereals, summarizes the development of domestic and international research on cereal processing, and offers a prognosis for the future directions of research and development in cereal food processing. Its purpose is to provide theoretical references for germination or fermentation on grain processing applications.
Ultrasound on livestock and poultry meat products processing mainly through ultrasound generated cavitation and other effects, so that the meat structure, nutrients, flavour substances and other changes, so as to have an impact on its quality. A new technique for cooking is ultrasonic assistance. When compared to the traditional way of cooking, its benefits of high frequency and high calories can quickly enhance the efficiency of food preparation, achieving greater results than the traditional long-term cooking effect in a short period of time. This study analyzes the function of ultrasonic assisted cooking in the quality processing of livestock and poultry meat products based on ultrasonic assisted cooking and integrated with the research development at home and abroad. It serves as a theoretical underpinning for the subsequent industrial production and healthy diet of food cattle and poultry meat products, and contributes positively to the future direction of food production and processing.
Plant polysaccharides, one of the main sources of natural polysaccharides, has significant antitumor activity and are potentially exploitable in the field of food and medicine. This paper systematically summarizes the anti-tumor mechanism and structure-activity relationships of plant polysaccharides, focusing on three perspectives: Inhibition of tumor cell growth, enhancement of immune regulation, and inhibition of tumor cell invasion and metastasis. The functional-structural relationships of plant polysaccharides are further dissected based on their molecular weight, glycosidic bond types and monosaccharide composition, modified modifications and advanced structures. In this paper, the antitumor activity and structure-bioactivity relationships of plant polysaccharides are systematically summarized to provide a reference for discovering its new breakthroughs and further development.
Starch is the main carbohydrate source in the food system, and its hydrothermal stability during food processing is closely related to its pasting properties and nutritional functionalities. By improving the hydrothermal stability of starch, the digestion rate and degree of starch in vivo can be significantly delayed, which is of great significance for the regulation of blood glucose in vivo. From the viewpoint of the intrinsic relationships between the multi-scale structures and functionalities of starch, this review summarizes the evaluation index and evaluation method of starch hydrothermal stability and systematically discusses the key structures and processing technologies affecting starch hydrothermal stability. The pathways to modulate starch hydrothermal stability are also discussed. Additionally, perspectives regarding the current of starch hydrothermal stability modulation are proposed, which may provide theoretical foundation for the development of starch-based functional foods.
Chia seed has a long edible history. In recent years, it has drew the attention of many researchers and has been applied in China. The active ingredients of Chia seed mainly include fatty acids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, protein, dietary fiber, vitamins and minerals, which have physiological activities of anti-oxidation, regulating blood lipids, regulating blood pressure, regulating blood sugar, reducing creatine kinase and anti inflammatory disinfection. With the enhancement of people's awareness of health care and the pursuit of nutritious food, Chia seed has gradually become a hot topic in the field of food research. At present, most of Chia seed are directly added to the food as additives, without in-depth development of new products. It has a good effect in preventing cancer and regulating blood lipids, regulating blood pressure, regulating blood sugar. Few new products have been developed, and the relevant research needs to be deepened. The present review summarizes active ingredients, physiological action and function of Chia seed as well as its application in food, health products, and cosmetics industries. This review aims to provide reference for the research and development of Chia seed.
The types and contents of proteins are different in different foods, and the composition and proportion of amino acids are different, as a result, their contribution to meeting the nutritional needs of the human body is different. As the most basic nutrient component of food, protein has a direct impact on human health. With the rapid increase of global population and limited resources, a scientific and reasonable protein quality evaluation method is very important for investigating reasonable diet, obtaining adequate nutrition, and effectively developing new protein resources and so on. Therefore, this paper reviews the research process of protein quality evaluation methods in food, and elaborates the protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) and digestibility indispensable amino acid score (DIAAS), including the applications, advantages and limitations of these two evaluation methods. It is hoped to provide some theoretical basis for exploring high-quality protein sources and protein complementarity, and developing high-quality protein foods.
Tyramine (TYR) is a bioactive organic compound with low molecular weight containing nitrogen. It is found in fermented or preserved foods, aged cheeses, beer, fruits, cured meats and dried meats, and is a by-product of microbial activities. It will produce greater harm to the human body, when the concentration is high. Therefore, sensitive and rapid detection of TYR content in food and control of its generation and accumulation is a hot issue concerned by the food industry. Current techniques for accurate detection of TYR include polymerase chain reaction technique and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, but both suffer from long detection cycle and cumbersome operation, which are not suitable for rapid detection of TYR in the field. The imprinted polymers prepared by molecular imprinting technology are highly selective and specific for the target with high stability, and have a wide range of applications, and thus are favored by researchers at home and abroad. In this paper, the preparation methods of tyramine-molecularly imprinted materials are introduced, including bulk polymerization, in-situ polymerization, sol-gel method and electrochemical polymerization. The latest research progress of molecularly imprinted technique for TYR detection in food in recent years is reviewed, such as the combination with solid-phase extraction, electrochemical sensors, fluorescent sensors and mass sensors and the future development prospects of molecular imprinting technology in the detection of TYR are prospected, which provides a certain basis for future research work.
As a common bulking agent and stabilizer for residents, aluminum-containing food additives have a comprehensive application scenario. However, it is noteworthy that the abuse of aluminum-containing food additives may cause a potential health risk to the public. Taking aluminum-containing food additives as the research object, the paper systematically discusses the basic characteristics of aluminum-containing food additives, detection technology of aluminum-containing food additives, and monitoring of food aluminum content, and summarizes the current problems for each part.
Beef has become one of the important components of consumers' diets due to its high nutritional value. In recent years, the problem of beef adulteration has been coming. With the development of analytical techniques, mass spectrometry, enzyme-linked immunoassay, genetic, sensor and spectroscopic techniques has been used to identify adulterated beef. Mass spectrometry has highly accurate and is used to identify beef after deep processing or similar species beef, but the equipment is expensive. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays has low cost and high specific and are used to identify the meat species, however, the results are prone to false positive when identifying similar species. Gene chip technology can be used to test beef samples fast and large-scale, but there has problems with standardization of gene chip. Sensor technology has been used to beef identification, and needs to be combined with other technologies because the detection precision is low. The spectroscopy technique is fast to detect, but requires complex data support. In conclusion, this paper analyzes the principles, advantages and disadvantages of beef adulteration identification technology, which is expected to provide reference for the development of beef adulteration identification technology.
Since the outbreak of COVID-19, the rapid rise of ‘home economy’ has boosted the consumption of prepared dishes, which has gradually gained popularity among consumers. As an important part of prepared dishes, prepared dishes based on livestock and poultry face high market demand. However, there are problems in sensory, flavor, safety and standards of products at present. Therefore, it is necessary to innovate processing technologies such as the primary processing, cooking, sterilization and storage of livestock and poultry meat to provide strong technical support for the high-quality development of the livestock and poultry prepared dishes industry. This review focuses on the research status of the processing technologies of livestock and poultry prepared dishes. Moreover, the existing relevant standards of livestock and poultry prepared dishes are briefly summarized. This review can provide references for the improvement and innovative development of processing technology and product quality of livestock and poultry prepared dishes.